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III. Summary of the Recommendations of the 1st-7th Bayon Symposium, 1996-2002
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to "The Master Plan for the Conservation & Restoration of the Bayon Complex"
 
R3-1-3: The master Plan must include three aspects; Architectural conservation / Management plan / Environmental protection.
3-2-2: JSA would finalize "Master plan for the conservation and restoration of the Bayon complex in keeping with the provisional outline of the plan.
R6-1: The on-going activities undertaken at Bayon are well conducted methodologically as well as technically by the JSA team. It is recommended to continue the implementation of the works planned following the three purposes of the Bayon Master Plan: 1)Investigations (the architectural investigations / the art history / the archaeological investigations). 2)Preservation (the conservation planning / the preservation works / the restoration works). 3)The maintenance program.
7-6: It is recommended that all teams sharing in the international action for the safeguarding of Angkor continue to provide concrete inputs to the JSA team, organizer of the Bayon Symposium series since 1996, in its efforts to develop a master plan for the preservation of the Bayon Temple and to draft a "Bayon Charter in conformity with the principles of ethics and practices for the conservation of cultural heritage.
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to the Restoration Techniques and Plan of Bayon and Angkor Monuments
 
R1-3: Initiate discussion on particular technical points.
R2-1: The function of a structure must be understood in order to ensure its sustainability before repairing and interventing.
R2-1-1: Appreciation of the stone expectancy.
R2-1-2: Appreciation of the structural weaknesses as result of poor workmanship.
R2-1-3: Appreciation of the water infiltration.
R2-1-4: Appreciation of the importance of maintenance.
R2-2: We must also ensure that we understand the damage mechanisms.
R2-2-1: appreciation of water, salts and climate as damage-causing factors.
R2-2-2: appreciation of an architectural structure that has undergone the effect time, inserted into history, and to which we want to provide sustainability.
R3-2: Methodological aspect.
R3-2-1: Regarding the introducing new materials, the following steps must be taken: develop with as much detail as possible a documentary record concerning the new materials; publish the key features of the program of such interventions; avoid conspicuous markings on the front of monuments relating to identification of the flew material.
R4-3: The symposium also recommended to adopt a basic general methodology in the analysis of the structure for understanding of the monument and in the preparation of investigation plan optimizing cost-benefit effects.
R5-1: 1)It is recommended that our colleagues of JSA continue their investigations in order to identify the cause of the inclination of the towers. 2)It is recommended that cooperation be strengthened between the Cambodian authorities and JSA so that the Angkor Thom conservation Unit give due attention to problems of circulation (movement of people and traffic) in the Bayon temple while JSA is implementing its program therein.
R5-4: Considering the scientific and technical contribution of the join research carried out at the Tani Kiln Site by the Nara Institute and the APSARA Authority, as well as the importance of its future exhibition to the public, we recommend that this research be pursued to its final stage, and that as study be made of other similar experiences, in Asia and in Europe, especially in Italy and France.
R5-6: For the implementation of a special project for the restoration of the bas-reliefs, it is recommended that benefit from a study be made of other similar experiences, especially in the historic city of Rome, World Heritage Site.
R6-2: To undertake an in-depth study on the evacuation of rain water within the Angkor Thom perimeter, with a special attention on the Bayon Temple. This study should be undertaken by all concerned working teams, especially the EFEO would undertake the study concerning the Royal Terraces, the Bapuon, the drainage system of Angkor Thom (Jacques GaucherÕs team) and JSA would undertake this study on the Bayon Temple and the Prasat Suor Prat - to get a global and coherent Vision of the present situation which allows to design a technical-coordinated Solution, with the contribution of the Ad Hoc group of experts.
R7-3: Given that the teams working at Angkor are confronted with similar problems in stone conservation (structural instability, deterioration caused by rainwater and pollution, weathering), it is strongly recommended that a close ties of cooperation be developed among all the teams, in order to ensure: a)The ongoing exchange of information and the pooling of experience; b)Routine consultation regarding chemical products prior to using them for treatment interventions; c)Continuous monitoring of damaged stone during both the diagnosis and treatment operations. Furthermore, to ensure the effectiveness of this cooperation arrangement, it is recommended that the APSARA Authority coordinate these activities.
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to the Historical Researches of Bayon
 
R1-2: A clearer grasp of the history of the monument through architectural and epigraphic studies. Carry out a thorough, three-pronged historical study, based on architecture, epigraphy and archaeology.
R5-2: It is recommended that JSA, and notably the art history team, continue it research on the basis of the very rich and comprehensive fund of information.
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to the Contribution of Experts and Human Resources Development
 
R4-5: 1)The symposium recommended that all the teams working on the site of Angkor should continuously exchange views and information among them and with the APSARA authority, especially concerning the training activities, such as the training course in Tanei temple organized with the cooperation of International Organizations.
R4-5: 2)The symposium also recommended that, in view of necessary transfer of knowledge and technology to the future Cambodian experts, all the international teams as well as UNESCO and ICCROM should make reflections, on the contents of practical training program with results for the preservation Angkor and submit it to the APSARA authority in near future.
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to Documentations sharing and Free Access to Information
 
R1-1: An update on what is being done in the framework or the implementation of JSA's operations.
R3-1-1: Recalling the importance of the Nara Declaration on Authenticity, the Symposium recommended that UNESCO summaries the contents of the declaration in its main lines and circulate this document for the benefit of all teams working in Angkor.
R4-1: Nothing with satisfaction different approaches adopted by the international groups participating in the restoration of Angkor monuments, which reflect the diversity of cultural traditions, the symposium invited all of them to enhance their experiences through exchange or information and to respect them.
R5-5: l)Given that documentation is an essential part of the conservation process, we recommend that all teams try to establish a standard terminology in the field of documentation and to develop a common system for recording, archiving and analyzing the research data produced in Angkor. 2)We strongly recommend that all teams deposit immediately after publication a copy of their photographs and drawings with the International Documentation Center for Angkor. 3)An appeal is made to all teams to organize special training sessions for young Cambodians in the matter of documentation, with the support of lCCROM and coordinated by the APSARA Authority.
R5-7: The experts involved or interested in the conservation in the conservation process at Angkor (such as GACP, Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Nara Institute, etc.) are kindly requested to submit to the APSARA Authority a list of products, methods and materials to be, case by case, forbidden to use in Angkor.
R6-3: The two distinguished Japanese experts, Mr. Noguchi and Mr. Iwasaki, who participated and worked within the framework of the International Safeguarding Campaign of Borobudur Temple (Indonesia) both prepare a note on the most Interesting elements which, according to them, could benefit to the preservation of Bayon. These notes should be deposit at the International Technical and Scientific Documentation Center on Angkor; UNESCO provides the International Technical and Scientific Documentation Center on Angkor with a full set of documentation on the International Safeguarding Campaign of Borobudur Temple (Indonesia) which could be relevant for the preservation of the Bayon temple.
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to the Conservation Principle and Management of Bayon and Angkor Monuments
 
R3-1-2: The symposium underlined the necessity to respect the intangible culture and diversity of heritage values. The conservation programmed of Angkor must include the preservation of cultural and religious values as well as the revival of the traditions related to the history of monument.
R4-2: All the people who make effort in conservation of monuments in Angkor region, must at all times keep in mind that the site of Angkor has it own originality, based on the Cambodian traditions and history.
R4-4: As strongly wished by the Cambodian Authorities, due consideration must be give to the importance of restoring temples, as living ones. This element should be incorporated in the future master plan for the Bayon, based on the relevant studies to be conducted in cooperation with the APSARA authority on this matter.
R5-3: For sustainable conservation and for the restoration of bas-reliefs, it is recommended that a consensus be sought at the technical levels, under the aegis of the APSARA Authority, with the assistance of UNESCO, in order to establish an ethics and guideline to be adopted by all the teams at Angkor.
R6-4: The management of the Angkor world heritage site should benefit from the example of the Nara world heritage site especially with regard to the need to maintain balance between the cultural properties, the cultural landscapes as well as to the eco historical site as a whole.
R7-1: In keeping with the wishes expressed by the representatives of the JSA, EFEO and GACP teams, it is strongly recommended that, in constant liaison with APSARA and its Department of Monuments and Archaeology, a comparison be made of the data obtained on the various locations, that such investigations involve not only the ancient hydraulic network, but the current system as well. Matters of archaeological and historical interest as well as sustainable monument conservation, can be given due consideration.
R7-4: The presentation of a monument or site is primarily a cultural act intended to showcase to the public the history, significance and values relating to the particular monument or site. Therefore, in order to ensure direct and balanced access to all publics in all their diversity (nationality, social and cultural background, financial resources), it is especially recommended that: a) There be no exclusion, due to reference to a dominant cultural identity, regarding the showcasing of other features of cultural heritage that have a historical link or relating to groups that have now become minorities; b)To this end, see to it that UNESCOÕs recommendations regarding cultural diversity are implemented; c) Give the greatest possible consideration to the sensitivities of the local communities when developing plans for presentation.
R7-5: In parallel with the external urban pressure being exerted on the town of Siem Reap, that was not difficult to foresee with the return of peace to civil society and political stability in the country, it is noted that a similar internal pressure of an urban nature is beginning to grow within Angkor Archaeological Park itself. Within this site, a moving in of people from outside Angkor is taking place, which is already causing an over-densification of the existing habitat. The APSARA Authority, particularly through its Economic and Social Department and Department of Culture, is therefore urged: a) To conduct as quickly as possible field surveys or supporting surveys in order to ascertain the scope of this phenomenon; b) To come up with reliable statistics on the number of people leaving within Angkor Archaeological Park as well as on the particular occupations of these people. This information is to be distributed to all members of the International Coordinating Committee for Angkor and lead to the completion of a land use map based on available cartographies (JICA, IGN, etc.) as well as a land ownership inventory.
 
 
”Recommendation Concerning to the Regional Researches of Angkor Area
 
R7-2: Due to the importance of the water system within the ecological and historical region of Angkor, it is recommended that a comprehensive summary be made of all studies previously made as well as those ongoing, on the past and present water network between the Kulen Mountains and the Tonle Sap Lake. With the support of UNESCO and in cooperation with the teams involved in the international action for the safeguarding of the Angkor, the APSARA Authority will conduct the preparation of this summary to facilitate the submission of new projects to the International Coordinating Committee for Angkor.
 
Legend; (III) R4-3:The 4th Bayon Symposium, 3rd Recommendation
 
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